In the Third Reich, political dissidents were not the only ones liable to be punished for their crimes. Their parents, siblings and relatives also risked reprisals. This concept - known as Sippenhaft – was based in ideas of blood and purity. This definitive study surveys the threats, fears and infliction of this part of the Nazi system of terror.
Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History is a brief but comprehensive survey of the Third Reich based on current research findings that provides a balanced approach to the study of Hitler’s role in the history of the Third Reich. The book considers the economic, social, and political forces that made possible the rise and development of Nazism; the institutional, cultural, and social life of the Third Reich; World War II; and the Holocaust. World War II and the Holocaust are presented as logical outcomes of the ideology of Hitler and the Nazi movement. This new edition contains more information on the Kaiserreich (Imperial Germany), as well as Nazi complicity in the Reichstag Fire and increased discussion of consent and dissent during the Nazi attempt to create the ideal Volksgemeinschaft (people’s community). It takes a greater focus on the experiences of ordinary bystanders, perpetrators, and victims throughout the text, includes more discussion of race and space, and the final chapter has been completely revised. Fully updated, the book ensures that students gain a complete and thorough picture of the period and issues. Supported by maps, images, and thoroughly updated bibliographies that offer further reading suggestions for students to take their study further, the book offers the perfect overview of Hitler and the Third Reich.
This volume takes a comparative approach, locating totalitarianism in the vastly complex web of fragmented pasts, diverse presents and differently envisaged futures to enhance our understanding of this fraught era in European history. It shows that no matter how often totalitarian societies spoke of and imagined their subjects as so many slates to be wiped clean and re-written on, older identities, familial loyalties and the enormous resilience of the individual (or groups of individuals) meant that the almost impossible demands of their regimes needed to be constantly transformed, limited and recast.
Alarming levels of fear and suspicion developed in Australia following the German victories in Europe of 1940. It was believed the Nazis had prepared an army of subversives a Fifth Column to undermine the war effort. These suspicions plagued the Australian home front for much of the war.
From images of jubilant mothers offering the Nazi salute, to Eva Braun and Magda Goebbels, women in Hitler’s Germany and their role as supporters and guarantors of the Third Reich continue to exert a particular fascination. This account moves away from the stereotypes to provide a more complete picture of how they experienced Nazism in peacetime and at war. What was the status and role of women in pre-Nazi Germany and how did different groups of women respond to the Nazi project in practice? Jill Stephenson looks at the social, cultural and economic organisation of women’s lives under Nazism, and assesses opposing claims that German women were either victims or villains of National Socialism.
Based on the public television series of the same name, Bradshaw On: The Family is John Bradshaw's seminal work on the dynamics of families that has sold more than a million copies since its original publication in 1988. Within its pages, you will discover the cause of emotionally impaired families. You will learn how unhealthy rules of behavior are passed down from parents to children, and the destructive effect this process has on our society. Using the latest family research and recovery material in this new edition, Bradshaw also explores the individual in both a family and societal setting. He shows you ways to escape the tyranny of family-reinforced behavior traps--from addiction and co-dependency to loss of will and denial--and demonstrates how to make conscious choices that will transform your life and the lives of your loved ones. He helps you heal yourself and then, using what you have learned helps you heal your family. Finally, Bradshaw extends this idea to our society: by returning yourself and your family to emotional health, you can heal the world in which you live. He helps you reenvision societal conflicts from the perspective of a global family, and shares with you the power of deep democracy: how the choices you make every day can affect--and improve--your world.
This brief study of the 1945 expulsion of German populations from Eastern-Central and Eastern Europe does not by any means pretend to be a complete and exhaustive analysis of a subject so massive, complex and controversial. Moreover, it is selective: in dealing with the reception of the expellees it focuses on West Germany, which though most extensively involved, is nevertheless only one of the many countries affected by the exodus. Yet the writer feels that even by presenting barely the funda mentals he can still hope to make some contribution to a field which -at least in the English speaking world - is far from being explored, analyzed and evaluated. His concentration on West Germany has been stimulated by two factors. First, this is the part of the former Reich which is most immediately affected by the transfer. Second, as a result of this involvement it is in West Germany that documentation and literature on the question are most extensive. Indeed, to obtain proper information and data from those countries within the Soviet orbit which are in any way linked with the problem is difficult and at times even impossible. For obvious reasons, in these countries interest is centered, and quite understandably, not on the expulsion of the Germans, but rather on the transfer, dispersion, and annihilation of their own peoples under the Nazi conquest, events, which, in turn, many Germans prefer to keep forgotten.
The history of National Socialism as movement and regime remains one of the most compelling and intensively studied aspects of twentieth-century history, and one whose significance extends far beyond Germany or even Europe alone. This volume presents an up-to-date and authoritative introduction to the history of Nazi Germany, with ten chapters on the most important themes, each by an expert in the field. Following an introduction which sets out the challenges this period of history has posed to historians since 1945, contributors explain how Nazism emerged as ideology and political movement; how Hitler and his party took power and remade the German state; and how the Nazi 'national community' was organized around a radical and eventually lethal distinction between the 'included' and the 'excluded'. Further chapters discuss the complex relationship between Nazism and Germany's religious faiths; the perverse economic rationality of the regime; the path to war laid down by Hitler's foreign policy; and the intricate and intimate intertwining of war and genocide, with a final chapter on the aftermath of National Socialism in postwar German history and memory.
People have always lived in families, but what that means has varied dramatically across time and cultures. The family is not a "natural" phenomenon but an institution with a dynamic history stretching 10,000 years into the past. Mary Jo Maynes and Ann Waltner tell the story of this fundamental unit from the beginnings of domestication and human settlement. They consider the codification of rules governing marriage in societies around the ancient world, the changing conceptions of family wrought by the heightened pace of colonialism and globalization in the modern world, and how state policies shape families today. The authors illustrate ways in which differences in gender and generation have affected family relations over the millennia. Cooperation between family members--by birth or marriage--has driven expansions of power and fusions of culture in times and places as different as ancient Mesopotamia, where kings' daughters became priestesses who mediated among the various cultures and religions of their fathers' kingdom, and sixteenth-century Mexico, in which alliances between Spanish men and indigenous women variously allowed for consolidation of colonial power or empowered resistance to colonial rule. But family discord has also driven - and been driven by - historical events such as China's 1919 May Fourth Movement, in which young people seeking an end to patriarchal authority were key participants. Maynes's and Waltner's view of the family as a force of history brings to light processes of human development and patterns of social life and allows for new insights into the human past and present.
Tracing teachers' experiences in the Third Reich and East Germany, Charles Lansing analyzes developments in education of crucial importance to both dictatorships. Lansing uses the town of Brandenburg an der Havel as a case study to examine ideological reeducation projects requiring the full mobilization of the schools and the active participation of a transformed teaching staff. Although lesson plans were easily changed, skilled teachers were neither quickly made nor easily substituted. The men and women charged in the postwar era with educating a new “antifascist” generation were, to a surprising degree, the same individuals who had worked to “Nazify” pupils in the Third Reich. But significant discontinuities existed as well, especially regarding the teachers' professional self-understanding and attitudes toward the state-sanctioned teachers' union. The mixture of continuities and discontinuities helped to stabilize the early GDR as it faced its first major crisis in the uprising of June 17, 1953. This uniquely comparative work sheds new light on an essential story as it reconceptualizes the traditional periodization of postwar German and European history.
In 1936, Lillian Rosengarten and her family fled Nazi Germany for New York. But even there, the legacy of the Nazis' brutality continued to cast a shadow over her family for many decades. In Survival and Conscience, Rosengarten describes how she faced those challenges within her own life while gaining empathy for the struggles of others, realizing that all forms of extreme nationalism and hatred must be vigorously resisted. Like many other refugees from Nazism and survivors of the Holocaust, Rosengarten became a strong advocate of Palestinian rights. In 2010, she joined the "Jewish Boat to Gaza," designed to break Israel's punishing blockade of the Gaza Strip. Though the Israeli Navy obstructed their humanitarian mission, nothing can stop Lillian Rosengarten's inspiring story of love, self-discovery, and activism.
60 years after the trials of the main German war criminals, the articles in this book attempt to assess the Nuremberg Trials from a historical and legal point of view, and to illustrate connections, contradictions and consequences. In view of constantly reoccurring reports of mass crimes from all over the world, we have only reached the halfway point in the quest for an effective system of international criminal justice. With the legacy of Nuremberg in mind, this volume is a contribution to the search for answers to questions of how the law can be applied effectively and those committing crimes against humanity be brought to justice for their actions.
This volume continues a series of essays exploring broad topics in European history. Included are studies on twentieth-century topics in German, Italian, and Moroccan history. Britain is represented by essays on the medico-legal theory of rabies and comparative study of the ideas of John Thelwall and Edmund Burke. Roy Willis on France's overseas territories, Orest Ranum on the refinement and elaboration of the printed form in the eighteenth century, James Leith on the historical evolution of a children's board, and two studies on education, all attest to a noteworthy French orientation in this volume.
At the turn of the century, most women gave birth in their own homes, often attended only by a midwife or some friends and relatives; as they reached the end of life most people died in the same home they were born in, surrounded by family. Today, vast numbers of people begin and end life in the sterilized, institutional world of hospitals and nursing homes, dying far from where they were born, their families broken by divorce, their lives extended by modern medicine. In no other century have technological and social changes altered private life so dramatically. In a lavishly illustrated, insightfully written account, The Family uncovers the intimate details of private life behind the sweeping events of the twentieth century. Ranging well beyond the Western world, this volume covers the globe, illuminating the living conditions and experiences of families in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as well as in the formerly socialist countries of the Soviet bloc. The Family also includes explorations of the changing patterns of family life, such as relations between the sexes and attitudes toward children and the old; the nature of work (both in the home and for a wage); and broader questions of social organization and conflict. This volume, edited by John Harriss and consultant editor Charles Webster (Oxford), addresses these issues and more, showing the influence of industrialization, religion, war, migration, education, and advances in medicine on the daily realities of private life. And throughout, scores of informatively captioned photographs and detailed capsule biographies bring the images and personalities of the century to life. Behind the march of armies, the changing tides of national borders, and the boom and bust of economics lies the changing face of private experience, the small but concrete details of family, community, and work. From the effects of urbanization in Japan and Turkey to the new blueprints for society suggested by the Russian revolution, this volume shows how particular cultures have responded to the demands of the modern age, offering a new perspective on the dramatic changes of our times.