This book is a very concise introduction to the basic knowledge of scientific publishing. It starts with the basics of writing a scientific paper, and recalls the different types of scientific documents. In gives an overview on the major scientific publishing companies and different business models. The book also introduces to abstracting and indexing services and how they can be used for the evaluation of science, scientists, and institutions. Last but not least, this short book faces the problem of plagiarism and publication ethics.
"An Easy Introduction to Music Theory," Parts 1 and 2, were written to be a very easy, step-by-step introduction to music theory for any reader. The books assume no prior background in music! In Part 2, we begin with compound meter and end with harmonizing melodies.
A concise, coherent and easily readable textbook about the field of science communication, connecting the practice of science communicators with theory. In the book, recent trends and shifts in the field resonate, such as the transition from telling about science to interacting with the public and the importance of science communication in health and environmental communication. The chapters have been written by experts in their disciplines, coming from philosophy of science and communication studies to health communication and science journalism. Cases from around the world illustrate science communication in practice. The book provides a broad, up-to-date and coherent introduction to science communication for both, students of science communication and related fields, as well as professionals.
The calculus of variations is one of the oldest subjects in mathematics, and it is very much alive and still evolving. Besides its mathematical importance and its links to other branches of mathematics, such as geometry or differential equations, it is widely used in physics, engineering, economics and biology. This book serves both as a guide to the expansive existing literature and as an aid to the non-specialist — mathematicians, physicists, engineers, students or researchers — in discovering the subject's most important problems, results and techniques. Despite the aim of addressing non-specialists, mathematical rigor has not been sacrificed; most of the theorems are either fully proved or proved under more stringent conditions. In this new edition, several new exercises have been added. The book, containing a total of 119 exercises with detailed solutions, is well designed for a course at both undergraduate and graduate levels.
"Introduction to Computational Science" was developed over a period of two years at the University of Utah Department of Computer Science in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy-funded Undergraduate Computation in Engineering Science (UCES) program. Each chapter begins by introducing a problem and then guiding the student through its solution. The computational techniques needed to solve the problem are developed as necassary, making the motivation for learning the computing alwasy apparent. Each chapter will introduce a single problem that will be used to motivate a single computing concept. The notes currently consist of 15 chapters. The first seven chapters deal with Maple and the last eight with C. The textbook will contain 20 to 30 chapters covering a similar mix of concepts at a finer level of detail.
"Covers a broad range of subjects that undergraduates in the discipline should be familiar and comfortable with upon graduation. From chapters on the scientific method and fundamental research concepts, to experimental design, sampling and statistical analysis, the text offers an excellent introduction to the key concepts of geographical research. The content is applicable for students at the beginning of their studies right through to planning and conducting dissertations. The book has also been of particular support in designing my level 1 and 2 tutorials which cover similar ground to several of the chapters." - Joseph Mallalieu, School of Geography, Leeds University "Montello and Sutton is one of the best texts I've used in seminars on research methodology. The text offers a clear balance of quantitative vs. qualitative and physical vs. human which I've found particularly valuable. The chapters on research ethics, scientific communication, information technologies and data visualization are excellent." - Kenneth E. Foote, Department of Geography, University of Colorado at Boulder This is a broad and integrative introduction to the conduct and interpretation of scientific research, covering both geography and environmental studies. Written for undergraduate and postgraduate students, it: Explains both the conceptual and the technical aspects of research, as well as all phases of the research process Combines approaches in physical geography and environmental science, human geography and human-environment relations, and geographic and environmental information techniques (such as GIS, cartography, and remote sensing) Combines natural and social scientific approaches common to subjects in geography and environmental studies Includes case studies of actual research projects to demonstrate the breadth of approaches taken It will be core reading for students studying scientific research methods in geography, environmental studies and related disciplines such as planning and earth science.
This book on complexity science comprises a collection of chapters on methods and principles from a wide variety of disciplinary fields — from physics and chemistry to biology and the social sciences.In this two-part volume, the first part is a collection of chapters introducing different aspects in a coherent fashion, and providing a common basis and the founding principles of the different complexity science approaches; the next provides deeper discussions of the different methods of use in complexity science, with interesting illustrative applications.The fundamental topics deal with self-organization, pattern formation, forecasting uncertainties, synchronization and revolutionary change, self-adapting and self-correcting systems, and complex networks. Examples are taken from biology, chemistry, engineering, epidemiology, robotics, economics, sociology, and neurology.
The purpose of this book is to give a coherent account of the different perspectives on science and technology that are normally studied under various disciplinary heads such as philosophy of science, sociology of science and science policy. It is intended for students embarking on courses in these subjects and assumes no special knowledge of any science. It is written in a direct and simple style, and technical language is introduced very sparingly. As various perspectives are sketched out in this book, the reader moves towards a consistent conception of contemporary science as a rapidly changing social institution that has already grown out of its traditional forms and plays a central role in society at large. It will appeal to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines and complement well Professor Ziman's earlier books.
Introduction to Scientific Research Strategy and Planning isdesigned as an introductory primer for students interested inconducting research focused in both environmental andnatural sciences. The book introduces concepts for thenovice while providing instrumental recaps for a moreseasoned researcher. Because the thought of developingand conducting an individual research project for the firsttime can seem a surmountable task, having a primer toreview the process and aid in breaking out the steps can bemost valuable.The book is designed to explain the basic aspects ofresearch using the scientific method and provides selectexamples along with concept applications and guidance ondeveloping a written plan to conduct an individual researchproject. The text further explains how to modify a writtenplan to facilitate a variety of funding venues as well asbriefly addressing ethical issues associated with research.
This is a textbook designed to provide analytical background material in the area of Engineering Electromagnetic Fields for the senior level undergraduate and preparatory level graduate electrical engineering students. It is also an excellent reference book for researchers in the field of computational electromagnetic fields. The textbook covers — Static Electric and Magnetic Fields: The basic laws governing the Electrostatics, Magnetostatics with engineering examples are presented which are enough to understand the fields and the electric current and charge sources. Dynamic Electromagnetic Fields: The Maxwell's equations in Time-Domain and solutions, the Maxwell's equations in Frequency-Domain and solutions. Extensive approaches are presented to solve partial differential equations satisfying electromagnetic boundary value problems. Foundation to electromagnetic field radiation, guided wave propagation is discussed to expose at the undergraduate level application of the Maxwell's equations to practical engineering problems. Request Inspection Copy
A scientific publication system needs to provide two basic services: access and evaluation. The traditional publication system restricts the access to papers by requiring payment, and it restricts the evaluation of papers by relying on just 2-4 pre-publication peer reviews and by keeping the reviews secret. As a result, the current system suffers from a lack of quality and transparency of the peer-review evaluation process, and the only immediately available indication of a new paper’s quality is the prestige of the journal it appeared in. Open access is now widely accepted as desirable and is slowly beginning to become a reality. However, the second essential element, evaluation, has received less attention. Open evaluation, an ongoing post-publication process of transparent peer review and rating of papers, promises to address the problems of the current system. However, it is unclear how exactly such a system should be designed. The evaluation system steers the attention of the scientific community and, thus, the very course of science. For better or worse, the most visible papers determine the direction of each field and guide funding and public policy decisions. Evaluation, therefore, is at the heart of the entire endeavor of science. As the number of scientific publications explodes, evaluation and selection will only gain importance. A grand challenge of our time, therefore, is to design the future system, by which we evaluate papers and decide which ones deserve broad attention. So far scientists have left the design of the evaluation process to journals and publishing companies. However, the steering mechanism of science should be designed by scientists. The cognitive, computational, and brain sciences are best prepared to take on this task, which will involve social and psychological considerations, software design, and modeling of the network of scientific papers and their interrelationships. This Research Topic in Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience collects visions for a future system of open evaluation. Because critical arguments about the current system abound, these papers will focus on constructive ideas and comprehensive designs for open evaluation systems. Design decisions include: Should the reviews and ratings be entirely transparent, or should some aspects be kept secret? Should other information, such as paper downloads be included in the evaluation? How can scientific objectivity be strengthened and political motivations weakened in the future system? Should the system include signed and authenticated reviews and ratings? Should the evaluation be an ongoing process, such that promising papers are more deeply evaluated? How can we bring science and statistics to the evaluation process (e.g. should rating averages come with error bars)? How should the evaluative information about each paper (e.g. peer ratings) be combined to prioritize the literature? Should different individuals and organizations be able to define their own evaluation formulae (e.g. weighting ratings according to different criteria)? How can we efficiently transition toward the future system? Ideally, the future system will derive its authority from a scientific literature on community-based open evaluation. We hope that these papers will provide a starting point.
This invaluable book has been designed to be useful to most practising scientists and engineers, whatever their field and however rusty their mathematics and programming might be. The approach taken is largely practical, with algorithms being presented in full and working code (in BASIC, FORTRAN, PASCAL AND C) included on a floppy disk to help the reader get up and running as quickly as possible. The text could also be used as part of an undergraduate course on search and optimisation. Student exercises are included at the end of several of the chapters, many of which are computer-based and designed to encourage exploration of the method.
This book is intended to be a text for undergraduate students of coastal engineering. It also serves as a reference for graduate students and practicing engineers, building on a basic foundation in coastal engineering. Finally, it is a guide for people in related disciplines. Coastal managers may use the book to cover the more theoretical and engineering-related aspects of their trade. Its subject matter is of interest to geographers, planners and coastal scientists alike.
Phase diagrams are a MUST for materials scientists and engineers (MSEs). However, understanding phase diagrams is a difficult task for most MSEs. The audience of this book are young MSEs who start learning phase diagrams and are supposed to become specialists and those who were trained in fields other than materials science and engineering but are involved in research and/or development of materials after they are employed.Ternary phase diagrams presented in Chapter 4 are far more complex than binary phase diagrams. For this reason, ternary phase diagrams are nowadays less and less taught. However, in ceramics and semiconductors ternary phase diagrams become more and more important. Recent software provides necessary information to handle ternary phase diagrams. However, needless to say, without fundamental knowledge of ternary phase diagrams it is impossible to understand ternary phase diagrams correctly. In this book ternary phase diagrams are presented in a completely original way, with many diagrams illustrated in full color.In this book the essence of phase diagrams is presented in a user-friendly manner. This book is expected to be a Bible for MSEs.
This book is an introduction to the computational methods used in physics and other related scientific fields. It is addressed to an audience that has already been exposed to the introductory level of college physics, usually taught during the first two years of an undergraduate program in science and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of numerical analysis, programming or computers and teaches whatever is necessary for the solution of the problems addressed in the text. C]+ is used for programming the core programs and data analysis is performed using the powerful tools of the GNU/Linux environment. All the necessary software is open source and freely available. The book starts with very simple problems in particle motion and ends with an in-depth discussion of advanced techniques used in Monte Carlo simulations in statistical mechanics. The level of instruction rises slowly, while discussing problems like the diffusion equation, electrostatics on the plane, quantum mechanics and random walks.
This book is an introduction to the computational methods used in physics and other related scientific fields. It is addressed to an audience that has already been exposed to the introductory level of college physics, usually taught during the first two years of an undergraduate program in science and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of numerical analysis, programming or computers and teaches whatever is necessary for the solution of the problems addressed in the text. C++ is used for programming the core programs and data analysis is performed using the powerful tools of the GNU/Linux environment. All the necessary software is open source and freely available. The book starts with very simple problems in particle motion and ends with an in-depth discussion of advanced techniques used in Monte Carlo simulations in statistical mechanics. The level of instruction rises slowly, while discussing problems like the diffusion equation, electrostatics on the plane, quantum mechanics and random walks.
This edited volume presents fundamentals as well as applications of oculomotor methods in industrial and clinical settings. The topical spectrum covers 1.) basics and background material, 2.) methods such as recording techniques, markov models, Lévy flights, pupillometry and many more, as well as 3.) a broad range of applications in clinical and industrial settings. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
A reprint of the Prentice-Hall edition of 1992. Prepared by nine distinguished philosophers and historians of science, this thoughtful reader represents a cooperative effort to provide an introduction to the philosophy of science focused on cultivating an understanding of both the workings of science and its historical and social context. Selections range from discussions of topics in general methodology to a sampling of foundational problems in various physical, biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Each chapter contains a list of suggested readings and study questions.