Presenting classic thermodynamics as a concise and discrete whole, this book is a perfect tool for teaching a notoriously difficult subject. It features end-of-chapter practice problems, an appendix of worked problems, a glossary of terms, and much more.
An account of the concepts and intellectual structure of classical thermodynamics that reveals the subject's simplicity and coherence. Students of physics, chemistry, and engineering are taught classical thermodynamics through its methods--a "problems first" approach that neglects the subject's concepts and intellectual structure. In Thermodynamic Weirdness, Don Lemons fills this gap, offering a nonmathematical account of the ideas of classical thermodynamics in all its non-Newtonian "weirdness." By emphasizing the ideas and their relationship to one another, Lemons reveals the simplicity and coherence of classical thermodynamics. Lemons presents concepts in an order that is both chronological and logical, mapping the rise and fall of ideas in such a way that the ideas that were abandoned illuminate the ideas that took their place. Selections from primary sources, including writings by Daniel Fahrenheit, Antoine Lavoisier, James Joule, and others, appear at the end of most chapters. Lemons covers the invention of temperature; heat as a form of motion or as a material fluid; Carnot's analysis of heat engines; William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) and his two definitions of absolute temperature; and energy as the mechanical equivalent of heat. He explains early versions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics; entropy and the law of entropy non-decrease; the differing views of Lord Kelvin and Rudolf Clausius on the fate of the universe; the zeroth and third laws of thermodynamics; and Einstein's assessment of classical thermodynamics as "the only physical theory of universal content which I am convinced will never be overthrown."
Learn classical thermodynamics alongside statistical mechanics and how macroscopic and microscopic ideas interweave with this fresh approach to the subjects.
This extended tutorial essay views thermodynamics as an incomplete description of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom. The main goal is to show that the approach to equilibrium - with equilibrium characterized by maximum ignorance about the open system of interest - neither requires that many particles nor is it a precise way of partitioning relevant for the salient features of equilibrium and equilibration. Moreover it is indeed quantum effects that are at work in bringing about universal thermodynamic behaviour of modestly sized open systems. Von Neumann`s concept of entropy thus proves to be much more widely useful than something to be feared, and far beyond truly macroscopic systems in equilibrium.
Though thermodynamics is a tool used in all sciences and technologies, this book is especially designed to acquaint science students with the whole breadth of the subject covering both equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions. Equilibrium thermodynamics covered in the first-seven chapters caters to the needs of students up to the B.Sc./B.Sc. (Hons.) level. The next three chapters devoted to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and network thermodynamics fulfill the needs of the syllabi on these topics introduced in most universities at the postgraduate level. Chapters on ‘The Question of Ideality’ and ‘The Non-linear Region’ were the new additions to the second edition. In the third edition a new chapter on “Causality Principle in Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics” has been added. The readers may find the new chapter intellectually stimulating. The book is an accessible, straightforward discussion of basic topics, beginning with the laws of thermodynamics and focusing on derivations of basic relations. The text is suitably illustrated throughout with examples of various applications of interest to science students. It explains concepts systematically, teaches problem-solving meaningfully, and includes concept-elucidating questions that are intended to reinforce the student’s understanding of the material.
This edition of Thermodynamics is a thoroughly revised, streamlined, and cor rected version of the book of the same title, first published in 1975. It is intended for students, practicing engineers, and specialists in materials sciences, metallur gical engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, electrochemistry, and related fields. The present edition contains many additional numerical examples and prob lems. Greater emphasis is put on the application of thermodynamics to chemical, materials, and metallurgical problems. The SI system has been used through out the textbook. In addition, a floppy disk for chemical equilibrium calculations is enclosed inside the back cover. It contains the data for the elements, oxides, halides, sulfides, and other inorganic compounds. The subject material presented in chapters III to XIV formed the basis of a thermodynamics course offered by one of the authors (R.G. Reddy) for the last 14 years at the University of Nevada, Reno. The subject matter in this book is based on a minimum number of laws, axioms, and postulates. This procedure avoids unnecessary repetitions, often encountered in books based on historical sequence of development in thermodynamics. For example, the Clapeyron equation, the van't Hoff equation, and the Nernst distribution law all refer to the Gibbs energy changes of relevant processes, and they need not be presented as radically different relationships.
This monograph presents, from the viewpoint of continuum mechanics, a newly emerging field of irreversible thermodynamics, in which linear irreversible thermodynamics are extended to the nonlinear regime and macroscopic phenomena far removed from equilibrium are studied in a manner consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. The tool to develop this thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes are the generalized thermodynamics, which also extends the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes and Fourier to nonlinear irreversible processes. On the basis of mathematically rigorous representations of the first and the second law of thermodynamics, phenomenological theory (continuum mechanics) deductions are made from the thermodynamic laws of R. Clausius and Lord Kelvin and by this continuum mechanics theories are formulated for macroscopic irreversible processes occurring far removed from equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics are developed for thermodynamic functions. The macroscopic irreversible processes studied include global irreversible processes as well as local hydrodynamic processes at an arbitrary degree of removal from equilibrium. Applications of the theories cover global irreversible processes, simple flows of non-Newtonian and non-Fourier fluids, shock waves of monatomic and diatomic gases, rarefied gas dynamics, ultrasonic wave absorption and dispersion of monatomic and diatomic gases, electrochemical processes, neural networks of chemical reactors, microflows, etc. Variational principles in irreversible thermodynamics and contact manifolds in thermodynamics are also discussed.' This monograph, will be of interest to condensed matter physicists, chemical physicists, biophysicists, mechanical and aerospace engineers, and specialists and graduate students in the fields of irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to 20th century thermodynamics that can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, unifying what was traditionally divided into ‘thermodynamics’ and ‘kinetics’ into one theory of irreversible processes. This comprehensive text, suitable for introductory as well as advanced courses on thermodynamics, has been widely used by chemists, physicists, engineers and geologists. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition includes the following updates and features: Includes a completely new chapter on Principles of Statistical Thermodynamics. Presents new material on solar and wind energy flows and energy flows of interest to engineering. Covers new material on self-organization in non-equilibrium systems and the thermodynamics of small systems. Highlights a wide range of applications relevant to students across physical sciences and engineering courses. Introduces students to computational methods using updated Mathematica codes. Includes problem sets to help the reader understand and apply the principles introduced throughout the text. Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material provided online at http://sites.google.com/site/modernthermodynamics/. Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition is an essential resource for undergraduate and graduate students taking a course in thermodynamics.
Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text is recommended for physics students who are in need of a basic yet effective knowledge in the foundations of thermodynamics, as the book explains its many concepts in such an elementary and pedagogic manner, giving the readers a greater understanding of the core of the subject.
This one-semester course text introduces basic principles of thermodynamics and considers a variety of applications in science and engineering. The modern coverage is compact yet self-contained and holistic, with adequate material in a concise and economically-priced book for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates reading for first and higher degrees, and for professionals in research and industry. The mathematical prerequisite is an understanding of partial differentiation. Introduces basic principles of thermodynamics and considers a variety of applications in science and engineering The modern coverage is compact yet self-contained and holistic, with adequate and concise material
This inter-disciplinary guide to the thermodynamics of living organisms has been thoroughly revised and updated to provide a uniquely integrated overview of the subject. Retaining its highly readable style, it will serve as an introduction to the study of energy transformation in the life sciences and particularly as an accessible means for biology, biochemistry and bioengineering undergraduate students to acquaint themselves with the physical dimension of their subject. The emphasis throughout the text is on understanding basic concepts and developing problem-solving skills. The mathematical difficulty increases gradually by chapter, but no calculus is required. Topics covered include energy and its transformation, the First Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy, statistical thermodynamics, binding equilibria and reaction kinetics. Each chapter comprises numerous illustrative examples taken from different areas of biochemistry, as well as a broad range of exercises and references for further study.
The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
Despite the fact that many years have elapsed since the first microcalorimetric measurements of an action potential were made, there is still among the research workers involved in the study of bioelectrogenesis a complete overlooking of the most fundamental principle governing any biological phenomenon at the molecular scale of dimension. This is surprising, the more so that the techniques of molecular biology are applied to characterize the proteins forming the ionic conducting sites in living membranes. For reasons that are still obscure to us the molecular aspects of bioelectrogenesis are completely out of the scope of the dynamic aspects of biochemistry. Even if it is sometimes recognized that an action potential is a free energy-consuming, entropy-producing process, the next question that should reasonably arise is never taken into consideration. There is indeed a complete evasion of the problem of biochemical energy coupling thus reducing the bioelectrogenesis to only physical interactions of membrane proteins with the electric field: the inbuilt postulate is that no molecular transformations, in the chemical sense, could be involved.
The laws of thermodynamics drive everything that happens in the universe. From the sudden expansion of a cloud of gas to the cooling of hot metal, and from the unfurling of a leaf to the course of life itself - everything is directed and constrained by four simple laws. They establish fundamental concepts such as temperature and heat, and reveal the arrow of time and even the nature of energy itself. Peter Atkins' powerful and compelling introduction explains what the laws are and how they work, using accessible language and virtually no mathematics. Guiding the reader from the Zeroth Law to the Third Law, he introduces the fascinating concept of entropy, and how it not only explains why your desk tends to get messier, but also how its unstoppable rise constitutes the engine of the universe.
This book aims at guiding the reader with continuity from the elements of classical equilibrium thermodynamics to the formal problems of global non equilibrium thermodynamics necessary to describe an ?active system? such is a thermodynamic ecosystem. To this purpose, the brief review of equilibrium thermodynamics emphasizes the concepts of disequilibrium, Carnot cycles and less efficient cycles, and Gibbs availability as the distance from equilibrium. In this way the reader is taken by hand to accept the concept of Gibbs efficiency of the ecosystem Earth as a property given to us by the cosmological evolution. The final chapters are devoted to the optimal control theory of global non-equilibrium systems. An elementary theory of zero energy thermodynamic automata is presented. A thermodynamic automation with four temperatures and three controls is discussed in detail.