This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field. This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers. The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security and environmental protection. Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. More than 90% of all plant species have the potential to form such associations, which are often essential for optimal plant growth and productivity. Leading experts cover aspects of - structure and function; - molecular biology; - biotechnological applications; - ecophysiology; - systematics.
An understanding of crop physiology and ecophysiology enables the horticulturist to manipulate a plant’s metabolism towards the production of compounds that are beneficial for human health when that plant is part of the diet or the source of phytopharmaceutical compounds. The first part of the book introduces the concept of Controlled Environment Horticulture as a horticultural production technique used to maximize yields via the optimization of access to growing factors. The second part describes the use of this production technique in order to induce stress responses in the plant via the modulation of these growing factors and, importantly, the way that this manipulation induces defence reactions in the plant resulting in the production of compounds beneficial for human health. The third part provides guidance for the implementation of this knowledge in horticultural production.
This book shares the latest insights into the genetic basis of molecular communication between plants and their microbial consortia. Further, the book highlights the capabilities of the rhizosphere and endosphere, which help manage ecosystem responses to climate change, nutrient cycling and sequestration of carbon; and discusses their application to the development and management of renewable energy sources. In their natural environments, plants are surrounded by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Some microbes directly interact with plants in a mutually beneficial fashion, while others colonize plants solely for their own advantage. In addition, microbes can indirectly affect plants by drastically altering their environments. Understanding the complex nature of the plant-microbe interface (PMI) can pave the way for novel strategies to improve plant productivity in an eco-friendly manner. The PMI approach focuses on understanding the physical, molecular, and chemical interactions between organisms in order to determine their functional roles in biological, physical, chemical and environmental systems. Although several metabolites from plants and microbes have now been fully characterized, their roles in chemical interactions between these associates remain poorly understood, and require further investigation.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the benefits of biofertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Agricultural production has increased massively over the last century due to increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but these gains have come at a price. The chemicals are not only expensive; they also reduce microbial activity in agricultural soils and accumulate in the food chain, with potentially harmful effects for humans. Accordingly, it is high time to explore alternatives and to find solutions to overcome our increasing dependence on these chemicals. Biofertilizers, which consist of plant remains, organic matter and microorganisms, might offer an alternative. They are natural, organic, biodegradable, eco-friendly and cost-effective. Further, the microbes present in the biofertilizers are important, because they produce nutrients required for plant growth (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), as well as substances essential for plant growth and development (e.g., auxins and cytokinins). Biofertilizers also improve the physical properties, fertility and productivity of soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers while maintaining high crop yield. This makes biofertilizers a powerful tool for sustainable agriculture and a sustainable environment. The book covers the latest research on biofertilizers, ranging from beneficial fungal, bacterial and algal inoculants; to microbes for bioremediation, wastewater treatment; and recycling of biodegradable municipal, agricultural and industrial waste; as well as biocontrol agents and bio-pesticides. As such, it offers a valuable resource for researchers, academics and students in the broad fields of microbiology and agriculture.
Over the last decades, scientists have been intrigued by the fascinating organisms that inhabit extreme environments. These organisms, known as extremophiles, thrive in habitats which for other terrestrial life-forms are intolerably hostile or even lethal. Based on such technological advances, the study of extremophiles has provided, over the last few years, ground-breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology. In the new bioeconomy, fungi in general, play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations. The book is organized in five parts: (I) Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics and Physiology of Extremophilic Fungi, (II) Biosynthesis of Novel Biomolecules and Extremozymes (III) Bioenergy and Biofuel synthesis, and (IV) Wastewater and biosolids treatment, and (V) Bioremediation.
Agriculture is currently facing multi-faceted threats in the form of unpredictable weather variability, frequent droughts and scarcity of irrigation water, together with the degradation of soil resources and declining environmental health. These stresses result in the modification of plant physiology to impart greater resilience to changing abiotic and biotic environments, but only at the cost of declining plant productivity. In light of these facts, assessing the status of natural resource bases, and understanding the mechanisms of soil-plant-environment interactions so as to devise adaptation and mitigation approaches, represent great and imminent challenges for all of us. In this context, it is essential to understand the potential applications of modern tools, existing coping mechanisms and their integration, as this will allow us to develop suitable advanced mitigation strategies. From a broader perspective, the book deals with crop-environment interaction in the context of changing climatic conditions. To do so, it addresses four major aspects: Understanding the mechanism of carbon dynamics in the soil-plant-environment continuum; greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural systems; and soil properties influenced by climate change and carbon sequestration processes. Mitigation and management of the photo-thermal environment to improve crop productivity; soil health under variable climate; reducing agro-ecosystem evapotranspiration losses through biophysical controls; and heat stress in field crops and its management. Studying the impact of climate change on biotic environments; insect-pest interactions; manifestations of disease; and adaptation strategies for island agro-ecosystems. Innovative approaches to assess stress impacts in crops, such as crop modeling, remote sensing, spectral stress indices etc. The book presents a collection of contributions from authoritative experts in their respective fields. Offering young researchers new perspectives and future research directions, it represents a valuable guide for graduate students and academics alike.
This second updated and revised edition puts stronger emphasis on genetics and molecular biology. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field. Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
In the years since the first edition of “Arbuscular Mycorrhizas: Physiology and Function” was published, an exceptional proliferation of interest in mycorrhizal biology has developed. This has been associated with advances in different research disciplines such as genetics, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and physiology, advances which have generated better insight into topics of mycorrhizal biology, including the mechanisms of host-mycorrhiza interactions pre- and post-penetration, the influence of the symbiosis on the host and its surroundings, and the evolution and diversity of mycorrhization. It therefore became necessary to both update and expand the book's coverage in this, its second edition.
This book offers a timely overview and synthesis of biogeographic patterns of plants and fungi and their mycorrhizal associations across geographic scales. Written by leading experts in the field, it provides an updated definition of mycorrhizal types and establishes the best practices of modern biogeographic analyses. Individual chapters address the basic processes and mechanisms driving community ecology, population biology and dispersal in mycorrhizal fungi, which differ greatly from these of prokaryotes, plants and animals. Other chapters review the state-of-the-art knowledge about the distribution, ecology and biogeography of all mycorrhizal types and the most important fungal groups involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis. The book argues that molecular methods have revolutionized our understanding of the ecology and biogeography of mycorrhizal symbiosis and that rapidly evolving high-throughput identification and genomics tools will provide unprecedented information about the structure and functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis on a global scale. This volume appeals to scientists in the fields of plant and fungal ecology and biogeography.
Mycorrhizae are a type of fungus formed by the relationship between plant roots and soil, and there is a widespread agreement among botanists and soil scientists that mycorrhizae are beneficial to the health and growth of soil and plants. Research into mycorrhizae has grown enormously in recent years. It is now known that these fungi have numerous properties and functions - they promote plant growth, maintain plant and soil health, provide protection against root diseases, they assist production using reduced fertilizer and pesticides, they effect soil structure, nutrient acquisition, root length and root structure. Mycorrhizae have many useful modern practical applications - the re-vegetation of landscapes, golf courses, contaminated soils, the prevention and retardation of leaf dehydration, the maintenance of soil and plant biodiversity - to name but a few. The editors of this book have produced a valuable collection of specialised contemporary information describing state of the art and modern protocols in mycorrhizal research, compiled and presented in one authoritative volume. It will be a valued reference work for botanists, microbiologists, agricultural and soil scientists.
The third edition of a standard resource, this book offers a state-of-the-art, multi-disciplinary presentation of plant roots. It examines structure and development, assemblage of root systems, metabolism and growth, stressful environments, and interactions at the rhizosphere. Reflecting the explosion of advances and emerging technologies in the field, the book presents developments in the study of root origin, composition, formation, and behavior for the production of novel pharmaceutical and medicinal compounds, agrochemicals, dyes, flavors, and pesticides. It details breakthroughs in genetics, molecular biology, growth substance physiology, biotechnology, and biomechanics.
Most plants are colonized by endophytes: bacterial and fungal microorganisms, without visible disease symptoms. With state-of-the-art knowledge on their discovery, qualities and roles, this book describes endophyte diversity, their value, exploitation and future challenges. It explains how beneficial endophytes colonize plants, and how they might help mitigate climate change effects, assist pest control and interact with mycorrhizal fungi to boost yield. Endophytes can facilitate the access to nutrients, produce particular metabolites, and change the plant's chemistry, physiology and (defense) responses. Endophyte biosynthetic pathways can, alone or in combination with the plant's, yield novel chemicals, with yet-to-be-discovered pharmacological characteristics as well. The book describes how functional metagenomics can explore and boost yields of useful endophyte products.
Forest regeneration is a cornerstone of managing forests sustainably. Prompt and efficient regeneration gives society the benefits of wood products, as well as the economic wealth that obtaining and processing wood creates. Good reforestation habits provide more wood from less land and increased timber productivity means that demand for wood products can be met with less impact on non-wood uses of the forest. This symposium which was attended by nearly 200 professionals included participants from Canada, the United States, Europe, and Asia had as its focus the issue of forest regeneration which is a cornerstone of managing forests sustainably. Papers presented cover a range of topics related to reforestation within the broader categories of: the status of reforestation and afforestation around the world; nursery methodologies to produce target seedlings; planting and planting site treatments to optimize regeneration; and enhancing timber production and non-timber values through stand establishment.--Document.
Throughout their life, plants interact with all sorts of microbes. Some of these are detrimental and cause disease; some interactions are mutually beneficial for both partners. It is clear that most, if not all, of the interactions are regulated by highly complex checks and balances sustained by signalling and exchange of messengers and nutrients. The interactions where both partners are alive for a significant part of their time together are called biotrophic. In this e-book we bring together 33 articles representing the current state-of-the-art in research about diverse biotrophic plant-microbe associations aimed at describing and understanding how these complex and ubiquitous partnerships work and ultimately support much of the land-based biosphere.
This book presents state-of-the-art research on the many facets of the plant microbiome, including diversity, ecology, physiology and genomics, as well as molecular mechanisms of plant-microbe interactions. Topics considered include the importance of microbial secondary metabolites in stimulating plant growth, induced systemic resistance, tolerance to abiotic stress, and biological control of plant pathogens. The respective contributions show how microbes help plants to cope with abiotic stresses, and represent significant progress toward understanding the complex regulatory networks critical to host-microbe interaction and plant adaptation in extreme environments. New insights into the mechanisms of microbial actions in inducing plant stress tolerance open new doors for improving the efficacy of microbial strategies, and could produce new ways of economically increasing crop yields without harming the environment. As such, this book offers an essential resource for students and researchers with an interest in plant-microbe interaction, as well as several possibilities for employing the plant microbiome in the enhancement of crop productivity under future climate change scenarios.