A uniquely comprehensive and integrated account of neurotransmitter modulation. Suitable for neuroscientists and non-specialists alike.
This book presents information from different scientific disciplines - behavioral, biochemical, electrophysiological, anatomical, and medical - to detail the interaction of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) with other neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. Internationally recognized experts discuss the interaction of DA with monoaminergic transmitters such as norepinephrine, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin, as well as neuropeptide neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as neurotensin, cholecystokinin, and the opioid peptides. This is also the first book to include data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies examining the interaction of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Activity within neural circuits shapes the synaptic properties of component neurons in a manner that maintains stable excitatory drive, a process referred to as homeostatic plasticity. These potent and adaptive mechanisms have been demonstrated to modulate activity at the level of an individual neuron, synapse, circuit, or entire network, and dysregulation at some or all of these levels may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Greater mechanistic understanding of homeostatic plasticity will provide key insights into the etiology of these disorders, which may result from network instability and synaptic dysfunction. Over the past 15 years, the molecular mechanisms of this form of plasticity have been intensely studied in various model organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Though once thought to have a predominantly postsynaptic basis, emerging evidence suggests that homeostatic mechanisms act on both sides of the synapse through mechanisms such as retrograde signaling, to orchestrate compensatory adaptations that maintain stable network function. These trans-synaptic signaling systems ultimately alter neurotransmitter release probability by a variety of mechanisms including changes in vesicle pool size and calcium influx. These adaptations are not expected to occur homogenously at all terminals of a pre-synaptic neuron, as they might synapse with neurons in non-overlapping circuits. However, the factors that govern the homeostatic control of synapse-specific plasticity are only beginning to be understood. In addition to our limited molecular understanding of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity, very little is known about its prevalence in vivo or its physiological and disease relevance. In this research topic, we aim to fill the aforementioned void by covering a broad range of topics that include: - Identification of signaling pathways and mechanisms that operate globally or locally to induce specific pre-synaptic adaptations - The nature of pre-synaptic ion channels relevant to this form of plasticity and their synapse-specific modulation and trafficking - Development and utilization of new tools or methods to study homeostatic plasticity in axons and pre-synaptic terminals - Novel mechanisms of homeostatic adaptations in pre-synaptic neurons - Postsynaptic sensors of activity and retrograde synaptic signaling systems - A comprehensive analysis of the kinds of pre-synaptic adaptations in diverse neural circuits and cell types - Identification of physiological or developmental conditions that promote pre-synaptic homeostatic adaptations - How activity-dependent (Hebbian) and homeostatic synaptic changes are integrated to both permit sufficient flexibility and maintain stable activity - Relevance of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders - Computational modeling of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity and network stability.
Neurotransmitter Release: The Neuromuscular Junction is a collection of papers presented at a small meeting organized in the University of Milan to honor Bruno Ceccarelli. Ceccarelli was particularly interested in the structure and functioning of the neuromuscular junction and spent the rest of his career characterizing the process of neurotransmitter release, and eventually providing the strongest available support for the widely accepted ""vesicle hypothesis"" of neurotransmitter release. The meeting was intended to gather as many scientists who had been directly in touch with Bruno as possible and to discuss together problems of Bruno's interest. Organized into 20 chapters, the book first discusses the organelles of distinct secretory pathways involved in distinct types of neuronal signaling, such as synapsins, synaptophysin , and synaptobrevin. It then examines the role of coated vesicles, acetylcholine compartments, and potassium and calcium channels on neurotransmission processes. Other topics considered are the regeneration of nerve-evoked neurotransmission; the single-channel recordings of KNa in avian sensory neurons; the modulation of voltage-dependent calcium currents in identified snail neurons; and the agonistic/antagonistic action of calcium channel in mammalian peripheral neurons. Cross-talks between receptors coupled to calcium currents and between different intracellular signaling are provided in the last chapters of the book. These chapters also look into the relevance of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid to cell-to-cell communication in the central nervous system. This book is an invaluable source for scientists, researchers, and students who are interested in basic neurology.
Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. With recent advancements in new knowledge, it has become evident that psychostimulants and related drugs of abuse are influencing our central nervous system (CNS) remarkably and could alter their function for a longtime. This volume is the first to focus on substance abuse induced brain pathology in the widest sense as it covers alterations in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions under the influence of acute or chronic usage of substance abuse.
It has been known for half a century that neurotransmitters are released in preformed quanta, that the quanta represent transmitter-storing vesicles, and that release occurs by exocytosis. The focus of this book is twofold. In the first part, the molecular events of exocytosis are analysed. In the second part of the book, the presynaptic receptors for endogenous chemical signals are presented that make neurotransmitter release a highly regulated process.
Neurophysiology of Neuroendocrine Neurons provides researchersand students with not only an understanding of neuroendocrine cellelectrophysiology, but also an appreciation of how this modelsystem affords access to virtually all parts of the neuron fordetailed study - something unique compared to most types of neuronin the brain. Chapters range from those describing the rich historyand current state of in vivo recordings, highlighting the preciserelationship between the patterns of action potential discharge inthese neurons and hormone release, to in vitro approaches whereneuroendocrine neurons can be precisely identified and theirmembrane properties, morphology, and synaptic responses, directlyexamined. • Written by a team of internationally renownedresearchers, each chapter presents a succinct summary of the verylatest developments in the field • Includes an evaluation of different experimentalapproaches, both in vivo and in vitro, and how the resulting dataare interpreted • Both print and enhanced e-book versions areavailable • Illustrated in full colour throughout This is the first volume in a new Series ‘Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology’ , a co- publicationbetween Wiley and the INF (International Neuroendocrine Federation)that aims to illustrate highest standards and encourage the use ofthe latest technologies in basic and clinical research and hopes toprovide inspiration for further exploration into the exciting fieldof neuroendocrinology.
Creating Coordination in the Cerebellum provides a multidisciplinary collection of chapters on the cerebellum with topics covering the entire spectrum from development and molecular neurobiology, cell physiology and plasticity to motor control, system physiology, functional imaging and pathology. The book not only presents novel discoveries obtained with recently developed technologies, but also gives new general concepts in global issues of cerebellar development and functions. By doing so it sets the standard for cerebellar research of the 21st century. * Provides a complete overview of current cerebellar research * Includes color illustrations * Contains contributions from renowned cerebellar scientists
The transmission of the nervous impulse is always from the dendritic branches and the cell body to the axon or functional process. Every neuron, then, possesses a receptor apparatus, the body and the dendritic prolongations, an apparatus of emission, the axon, and the apparatus of distribution, the terminal arborization of the nerve fibers. I designated the foregoing principle: the theory of dynamic polarization (Cajal 1923). Ever since the beautiful drawings from Golgi and Cajal, we have been familiar with the organisation of neurones into dendritic, somatic and axonal compartments. Cajal proposed that these cellular compartments were specialised, resulting in his concept of ^dynamic polarisation'. He considered dendrites to be passive elements that simply transferred information from inputs to the soma. Since the discovery that dendrites of many neural populations release neuroactive substances and in doing so, alter neuronal output, it is now apparent that this theory requires qualification. This book presents recent developments in the neurophysiology of dendritic release of several chemical classes of transmitters in a number of different areas of the mammalian central nervous system. Once released from a neuron, these substances can act as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators, to autoregulate the original neuron, its synaptic inputs, and adjacent cells or, by volume transmission, to affect distant cells. In some systems, dendritic transmitter release is part independent of secretion from axon terminal signifying a selective control of the dendritic compartment.
Neurons in the nervous system organize into complex networks and their functions are precisely controlled. The most important means for neurons to communicate with each other is transmission through chemical synapses, where the release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic nerve terminal of one neuron influences the function of a second neuron. Since the discovery of chemical neurotransmission by Otto Loewi in the 1920s, great progress has been made in our understanding of mol- ular mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. The last decade has seen an explosion of knowledge in this field. The aim of Molecular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release is to provide up-to-date, in-depth coverage of essentially all major mole- lar mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. The contributors have made great efforts to write concisely but with sufficient background information, and to use figures/diagrams to present clearly key concepts or experiments. It is hoped that this book may serve as a learning tool for neuroscience students, a solid reference for neuroscientists, and a source of knowledge for people who have a general interest in neuroscience. I was fortunate to be able to gather contributions from a group of outstanding scientists. I thank them for their efforts. In particular, I want to thank Dr. Erik Jorgensen who offered valuable suggestions about the book in addition to contrib- ing an excellent chapter. I thank US National Science Foundation and National Institute of Health for their supports.
This book is designed as an introductory text in neuroendocrinology; the study of the interaction between the brain and endocrine system and the influence of this on behaviour. The endocrine glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus and their interactions and hormones are discussed. The action of steroid and thyroid hormone receptors and the regulation of target cell response to hormones is examined. The function of neuropeptides is discussed with respect to the neuroendocrine system and behaviour. The neuroimmune system and lymphokines are described and the interaction between the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems discussed. Finally, methods for studying hormonal influences on behaviour are outlined. Each chapter has review and essay questions designed for advanced students and honours or graduate students with a background in neuroscience, respectively.
This one-of-a-kind text describes the specific anatomy and neuromusculoskeletal relationships of the human spine, with special emphasis on structures affected by manual spinal techniques. A comprehensive review of the literature explores current research of spinal anatomy and neuroanatomy, bringing practical applications to basic science. A full chapter on surface anatomy includes tables for identifying vertebral levels of deeper anatomic structures, designed to assist with physical diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the spine, as well as evaluation of MRI and CT scans. High-quality, full-color illustrations show fine anatomic detail. Red lines in the margins draw attention to items of clinical relevance, clearly relating anatomy to clinical care. Spinal dissection photographs, as well as MRIs and CTs, reinforce important anatomy concepts in a clinical context. Revisions to all chapters reflect an extensive review of current literature. New chapter on the pediatric spine discusses the unique anatomic changes that take place in the spine from birth through adulthood, as well as important clinical ramifications. Over 170 additional illustrations and photos enhance and support the new information covered in this edition.
Intercellular communication via bioactive substances occurs in virtually all multicellular systems. Chemical neurotransmission in the vertebrate nervous system represents a form of signaling of this type. The biology of chemical neurotransmission is complex, involving transmitter synthesis, transport, and release by the presynaptic neuron; signal generation in the target tissue; and mechanisms for termination of the response. The focus of this book is on one aspect of this scheme: the diverse electrophysiological effects induced by different neurotransmitters on targets cells. In recent years, astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the specific physiological signals mediated by neurotransmitters in the verte brate nervous system, yet, in our view, this has not been adequately recog nized, perhaps because the new concepts have yet to filter into neuroscience textbooks. Nevertheless, the principles of neurotransmitter action are critical to advances in many areas of neuroscience, including molecular neurobiol ogy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, physiological psychology, and clinical neuroscience. It was the need for a sourcebook that prompted us to engage a group of neurophysiologists to prepare the chapters in this volume. However, there was an additional reason for this book: more and more it seemed that the field, if not yet having reached maturity, at least was ap proaching adolescence, with strengths in some areas and healthy conflicts in others. At this stage of development a textbook can help to define a field, clarify problems to be resolved, and identify areas for future investigation.
Neuronal nicotinic receptors are key molecules for signal transduction in a number of neuronal pathways. They are widely distributed in the brain and are known to be involved in cognitive tasks, including learning and memory, in smoking addiction and in several brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementias, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. This book provides a comprehensive review of the field, starting with a historical perspective and dealing with the molecular structure of these receptors, their biophysical and pharmacological properties, their distribution in central and peripheral nervous systems, and their major involvement in brain functions. Particular emphasis is paid to drugs (both new and old) that are useful in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving neuronal nicotinic receptors. Finally, the relevance of these receptors in smoking addiction is carefully evaluated, together with future trends and the latest results.
Rich in detail, Hippocampal Microcircuits: A Computational Modeler’s Resource Book provides succinct and focused reviews of experimental results. It is an unparalleled resource of data and methodology that will be invaluable to anyone wishing to develop computational models of the microcircuits of the hippocampus. The editors have divided the material into two thematic areas. Covering the subject’s experimental background, leading neuroscientists discuss the morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics as well as the connectivity and synaptic properties of the various cell types found in the hippocampus. Here, ensemble activity, related to behavior, on the part of morphologically identified neurons in anesthetized and freely moving animals, lead to insights into the functions of hippocampal areas. In the second section, on computational analysis, computational neuroscientists present models of hippocampal microcircuits at various levels of detail, including single-cell and network levels. A full chapter is devoted to the single-neuron and network simulation environments currently used by computational neuroscientists in developing their models. In addition to the above, the chapters also identify outstanding questions and areas in need of further clarification that will guide future research by computational neuroscientists.