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The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production

The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production Author : Nand Kumar Fageria
Release : 2012-07-23
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 1439867380
File Size : 85.76 MB
Format : PDF
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The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production presents the state of knowledge on environmental factors in root growth and development and their effect on the improvement of the yield of annual crops. This book addresses the role of roots in crop production and includes references to numerous annual crops. In addition, it brings together the issues and the state-of-the-art technologies that affect root growth, with comprehensive reviews to facilitate efficient, sustainable, economical, and environmentally responsible crop production. Written for plant scientists, crop scientists, horticulturalists, and soil scientists, plant physiologists, breeders, environmental scientists, agronomists, and undergraduate and graduate students in different disciplines of agricultural science, The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production: Addresses root architecture and development dynamics to help users improve crop productivity Emphasizes crop production, plant nutrition, and soil chemistry relative to root growth and functions Covers root morphology, root functions, nutrient and water uptake by roots, root-soil interactions, root-environment interactions, root-microbe interactions, physiology of root crops, and management practices to improve root growth Supports content with experimental results, and additional data is presented with pictures Increasing food production worldwide has become a major issue in the 21st century. Stagnation in grain yield of important food crops in recent years in developed, as well as developing, countries has contributed to a sharp increase in food prices. Furthermore, higher grain yield will be needed in the future to feed a burgeoning world population with a rising standard of living that requires more grain per capita. Technologies that enhance productivity, ensure environmental safety, and conserve natural resources are required to meet this challenge.

Mineral Nutrition of Crops

Mineral Nutrition of Crops Author : Zdenko Rengel
Release : 1999-06-18
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 9781560228806
File Size : 35.16 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The first book on crop nutrition that covers topics from soil hydrology to molecular biology! The first book ever to elucidate so many different aspects of mineral nutrition of crops, Mineral Nutrition of Crops: Fundamental Mechanisms and Implications will allow you to grasp the complexity of the soil-water-plant-microbe interactions governing nutrient uptake and utilization by crops. By emphasizing a fundamental mechanistic approach, this book effectively complements the monograph Nutrient Use in Crop Production (The Haworth Press, Inc.). With Mineral Nutrition of Crops you will explore the many facets necessary to increase crop and pasture yields and minimize unwanted losses of nutrients to the environment. Mineral Nutrition of Crops covers a wide range of topics that span several scientific disciplines: agriculture, agronomy, botany, forestry, ecology, plant science, and soil science. From this book, you will gain vital knowledge required to understand the complexity of mechanisms and processes governing nutrient transport toward roots, including biological and chemical reactions influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere, uptake by root cells, long-distance transport toward grain, and the role of nutrients in metabolism. Also, you will explore issues relating to the following topics: biology and chemistry of nutrient availability in the rhizosphere kinetics of nutrient uptake by plant cells role of mineral photosynthesis and yield formation importance of seed nutrient reserves in crop growth and development breeding crops for improved nutrient efficiency significance of root size for plant production monitoring water and nutrient fluxes down the profile From Mineral Nutrition of Crops , you will gain the knowledge you need to understand and improve methods of crop growth and nutrition. Mineral Nutrition of Crops is an indispensable manual for anyone involved in the many aspects of growing crops.

Nitrogen Management in Crop Production

Nitrogen Management in Crop Production Author : Nand Kumar Fageria
Release : 2014-06-25
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 148222285X
File Size : 51.37 MB
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One of the main approaches for safeguarding food security, sustainable development has increased demand for knowledge on fertilizer management in crop production. Among essential plant nutrients, nitrogen is one of the most important yield-limiting nutrients, mainly responsible for determining yield and yield components in cereals and legumes. It is also responsible for the activation of many enzymes and, of course, plays an important role in photosynthesis. With a recovery efficiency of less than 50 percent in most cropping systems, a large portion of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer is not used by plants, creating environmental and economic issues. Nitrogen Management in Crop Production covers the critical aspects for the judicious use of nitrogen in cropping systems. This includes appropriate methods of nitrogen application, effective source and timing of application during crop growth cycles, use of an adequate application rate to avoid loss and reduce cost, use of nitrogen-efficient crop genotypes, and use of legumes that fix sufficient amounts of atmospheric nitrogen. There is also a chapter on organic matter and its role in sustainability. This book presents recent information from the international literature, making it relevant for most agroecological regions. Chapters provide experimental results to aid in practical application of the information. The book contains color photos of nitrogen deficiency symptoms to serve as a guide for important crop species, such as rice, dry bean, wheat, soybean, and corn. It also includes numerous tables and figures, providing an easy-to-read reference.

Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture

Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture Author : Amarjit Basra
Release : 2000-12-13
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 9781560228912
File Size : 25.69 MB
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As agriculture becomes more mechanized and science increases the possibilities for using inputs to enhance production, the role of PGRs becomes more vital. Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture provides agriculture professionals and researchers with the information needed to effectively tap these versatile resources to enhance crop production. Through discussions of the “classical five” phytohormones--gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxins--and the growing number of nontraditional PGRs such as oligosaccharins and brassinosteroids, Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture reviews past and present uses of PGRs in managing crop yield and offers some speculation on future directions. Detailed discussions on the use of PGRs in, for example, grain, ornamental, and citrus crops, introduce readers to strategies for enhancing crop quantity and quality, for improving the postproduction quality of life of perishable plants, and for crop load management, respectively. The book also includes informative visuals, such as tables of common, chemical, and trade names of different commercially available PGRs; diagrams of various PGR processes; as well as before-and-after pictures illustrating the effects of PGRs. Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture is a comprehensive text covering the role of plant growth regulators in: root formation manipulating yield potential plant stress protection ornamental horticulture postharvest life of ornamentals manipulating fruit development and storage quality citriculture reducing fruit drop bloom-thinning strategies If the history of agriculture, which is over 10,000 years old, was condensed into a twenty-four-hour span, science-based plant breeding would be only about fifteen minutes old. Still, the role of PGRs in agriculture is modest compared to other agrochemicals, such as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture is an invaluable guide to the varied roles filled by PGRs in the attainment of higher-quality, better-yielding crops.

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production - Volume I

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production - Volume I Author : Willy H. Verheye
Release : 2010-11-30
Publisher : EOLSS Publications
ISBN : 1848263678
File Size : 60.88 MB
Format : PDF
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Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production is a component of Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. Plants, and crops in particular, grow and develop through the uptake of water and nutrients by the root system in soils and their transformation into biomass through processes governed by photosynthesis. The quality and amount of products harvested from this biomass depend largely on the intrinsic properties of the soil, i.e. the moisture and nutrients made available for uptake by the roots. These volumes describe in a synthetic form the impact of the most important soil properties on general agronomy, crop production, cultivation methods, and yields, including the specific management aspects which take away some production constraints. Changes in general agronomy as a result of plant breeding, climatic change and competition between newly introduced crops are discussed. The three volumes with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses about soils, plant growth and crop production in several related topics. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Plant Root Systems

Plant Root Systems Author : Robert Scott Russell
Release : 1977
Publisher : McGraw-Hill Companies
ISBN :
File Size : 82.81 MB
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The physiological background; Relationships between roots and shoots; The groeth and form of root systems; The absorption and transport of nutrients; The water relations of plant root systems; Relationships between plant roots and the rhizosphere flora; The soil environment; Mechanical impedance of root growth; Effects of anaerobic soil conditions; The soil/root interface; Traditional and modern methods of tillage; Reduced cultivation, soil conditions and crop growth.

Mineral Nutrition of Rice

Mineral Nutrition of Rice Author : N.K. Fageria
Release : 2013-08-22
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 1466558075
File Size : 31.58 MB
Format : PDF
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The third most important cereal crop after wheat and corn, rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. This includes regions of high population density and rapid growth, indicating that rice will continue to be a major food crop in the next century. Mineral Nutrition of Rice brings together a wealth of information on the ecophysiology and nutrient requirements of rice. Compiling the latest scientific research, the book explains how to manage essential nutrients to maximize rice yield. The book examines 15 essential or beneficial nutrients used in irrigated, upland, and floating rice across a range of geographic regions. For each mineral, the text details the cycle in the soil–plant system as well as the mineral’s functions, deficiency symptoms, uptake in plants, harvest index, and use efficiency. It then outlines management practices, covering application methods and timing, adequate rates, the use of efficient genotypes, and more. The author, an internationally recognized expert in mineral nutrition for crop plants, also proposes recommendations for the judicious use of fertilizers to reduce the cost of crop production and the risk of environmental pollution. Color photographs help readers identify nutrient deficiency symptoms and take the necessary corrective measures. Packed with useful tables and illustrations, this comprehensive reference guides readers who want to know how to increase rice yield, reduce production costs, and avoid environmental pollution from fertilizers. It offers practical information for those working in agricultural research fields, in laboratories, and in classrooms around the world.

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production - Volume II

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production - Volume II Author : Willy H. Verheye
Release : 2010-11-30
Publisher : EOLSS Publications
ISBN : 1848263686
File Size : 86.88 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 397
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Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production is a component of Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. Plants, and crops in particular, grow and develop through the uptake of water and nutrients by the root system in soils and their transformation into biomass through processes governed by photosynthesis. The quality and amount of products harvested from this biomass depend largely on the intrinsic properties of the soil, i.e. the moisture and nutrients made available for uptake by the roots. These volumes describe in a synthetic form the impact of the most important soil properties on general agronomy, crop production, cultivation methods, and yields, including the specific management aspects which take away some production constraints. Changes in general agronomy as a result of plant breeding, climatic change and competition between newly introduced crops are discussed. The three volumes with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses about soils, plant growth and crop production in several related topics. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production - Volume III

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production - Volume III Author : Willy H. Verheye
Release : 2010-11-30
Publisher : EOLSS Publications
ISBN : 1848263694
File Size : 52.43 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 651
Read : 1034

Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production is a component of Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. Plants, and crops in particular, grow and develop through the uptake of water and nutrients by the root system in soils and their transformation into biomass through processes governed by photosynthesis. The quality and amount of products harvested from this biomass depend largely on the intrinsic properties of the soil, i.e. the moisture and nutrients made available for uptake by the roots. These volumes describe in a synthetic form the impact of the most important soil properties on general agronomy, crop production, cultivation methods, and yields, including the specific management aspects which take away some production constraints. Changes in general agronomy as a result of plant breeding, climatic change and competition between newly introduced crops are discussed. The three volumes with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses about soils, plant growth and crop production in several related topics. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Tropical Root and Tuber Crops

Tropical Root and Tuber Crops Author : I. C. Onwueme
Release : 1994
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN : 9789251034613
File Size : 68.31 MB
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Phosphorus Management in Crop Production

Phosphorus Management in Crop Production Author : Nand Kumar Fageria
Release : 2017-02-17
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 1351667173
File Size : 25.13 MB
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The world population is projected to reach nine billion by 2050, and in the coming years, global food demand is expected to increase by 50% or more. Higher crop productivity gains in the future will have to be achieved in developing countries through better natural resources management and crop improvement. After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) has more widespread influence on both natural and agricultural ecosystems than any other essential plant element. It has been estimated that 5.7 billion hectares of land worldwide contain insufficient amounts of available P for sustainable crop production, and P deficiency in crop plants is a widespread problem in various parts of the world. However, it has been estimated that worldwide minable P could last less than 40 years. For sustaining future food supplies, it is vital to enhance plant P use efficiency. To bring the latest knowledge and research advances in efficient management of P for economically viable and environmentally beneficial crop production in sustainable agriculture, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production contains chapters covering functions and diagnostic techniques for P requirements in crop plants, P use efficiency and interactions with other nutrients in crop plants, management of P for optimal crop production and environmental quality, and basic principles and methodology regarding P nutrition in crop plants. The majority of research data included are derived from many years of field, greenhouse, and lab work, hence the information is practical in nature and will have a significant impact on efficient management of P-fertilizers to enhance P use efficiency, improve crop production, promote sustainable agriculture, and reduce P losses through eluviations, leaching, and erosion to minimize environmental degradation. A comprehensive book that combines practical and applied information, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production is an excellent reference for students, professors, agricultural research scientists, food scientists, agricultural extension specialists, private consultants, fertilizer companies, and government agencies that deal with agricultural and environmental issues.

Root and Tuber Crops

Root and Tuber Crops Author : J.E. Bradshaw
Release : 2010-09-11
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN : 9780387927657
File Size : 29.93 MB
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It is important to include Tuber and Root Crops in the Handbook of Plant Breeding. They include starchy staple crops that are of increasing importance for global food security and relief of poverty, important millennium goals for the United Nations. Indeed, 2008 was the UN International Year of the Potato in recognition of this role of the potato as the world’s third most important food crop after wheat and rice. The other major staples are cassava, sweetpotato and yam. Together they occupy about 50 million hectares, with production at 640 million metric tons, of which 70% is in developing countries. In total there are more than 30 species of Root and Tuber Crops grown in the world today. Given the content of other volumes in the series, it makes sense to include sugar and fodder beets; swedes and turnips; and minor root and tuber crops so that the book series is as complete as possible. Like the other volumes in the series, this one will present information on the latest in applied plant breeding using the current advances in the field, from an efficient use of genetic resources to the impact of biotechnology in plant breeding. Seven crop specific chapters are proposed, together with an introduction to this diverse set of plant species. Outstanding scientists for each crop species are proposed as senior authors, who may invite co-authors to contribute part of a chapter. In order to increase the overall acceptance of the volume, balance will be sought with authors from different research groups/countries who will be asked to contribute and collaborate where appropriate. The book should be of interest to researchers in both academic and industrial settings, and in both developed and developing countries, as well as students and teachers of plant breeding. It is currently extremely important to educate and train a new generation of plant breeders given the challenges faced by humankind in producing more food for an expanding global population during a period of environmental (including climate) change.

Nutrient Use Efficiency: from Basics to Advances

Nutrient Use Efficiency: from Basics to Advances Author : Amitava Rakshit
Release : 2014-12-26
Publisher : Springer
ISBN : 8132221699
File Size : 39.94 MB
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This book addresses in detail multifaceted approaches to boosting nutrient use efficiency (NUE) that are modified by plant interactions with environmental variables and combine physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic aspects. Conveying an in-depth understanding of the topic will spark the development of new cultivars and strains to induce NUE, coupled with best management practices that will immensely benefit agricultural systems, safeguarding their soil, water, and air quality. Written by recognized experts in the field, the book is intended to provide students, scientists and policymakers with essential insights into holistic approaches to NUE, as well as an overview of some successful case studies. In the present understanding of agriculture, NUE represents a question of process optimization in response to the increasing fragility of our natural resources base and threats to food grain security across the globe. Further improving nutrient use efficiency is a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and preventing environmental contamination. The nutrients most commonly limiting plant growth are N, P, K, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE depends on the ability to efficiently take up the nutrient from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant and the environment. A number of approaches can help us to understand NUE as a whole. One involves adopting best crop management practices that take into account root-induced rhizosphere processes, which play a pivotal role in controlling nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New technologies, from basic tools like leaf color charts to sophisticated sensor-based systems and laser land leveling, can reduce the dependency on laboratory assistance and manual labor. Another approach concerns the development of crop plants through genetic manipulations that allow them to take up and assimilate nutrients more efficiently, as well as identifying processes of plant responses to nutrient deficiency stress and exploring natural genetic variation. Though only recently introduced, the ability of microbial inoculants to induce NUE is gaining in importance, as the loss, immobilization, release and availability of nutrients are mediated by soil microbial processes.

Physiology of Crop Production

Physiology of Crop Production Author : N.K. Fageria
Release : 2006-05-18
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 1482277808
File Size : 31.90 MB
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This single volume explores the theoretical and the practical aspects of crop physiological processes around the world The marked decrease over the past century in the land available for crop production has brought about mounting pressure to increase crop yields, especially in developing nations. Physiology of Crop Production provides cutting-edge research and data for complete coverage of the physiology of crop production, all in one source, right at your fingertips. This valuable reference gives the extensive in-depth information soil and crop professionals need to maximize crop productivity anywhere the world. Leading soil and plant scientists and researchers clearly explain theory, practical applications, and the latest advances in the field. Crop physiology is a vital science needed to understand crop growth and development to facilitate increases of plant yield. Physiology of Crop Production presents a wide range of information and references from varying regions of the world to make the book as complete and broadly focused as possible. Discussion in each chapter is supported by experimental data to make this book a superb resource that will be used again and again. Chapter topics include plant and root architecture, growth and yield components, photosynthesis, source-sink relationship, water use efficiency, crop yield relative to water stress, and active and passive ion transport. Several figures and tables accompany the extensive referencing to provide a detailed, in-depth look at every facet of crop production. Physiology of Crop Production explores management strategies for: ideal plant architecture maximizing root systems ideal yield components maximizing photosynthesis maximizing source-sink relationship sequestration of carbon dioxide reducing the effects of drought improving N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S nutrition improving micronutrient uptake Physiology of Crop Production is an essential desktop resource for plant physiologists, soil and crop scientists, breeders, agronomists, agronomy administrators in agro-industry, educators, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students.

Plant Roots - From Cells to Systems

Plant Roots - From Cells to Systems Author : H.M. Anderson
Release : 2012-12-06
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN : 9401156964
File Size : 33.2 MB
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Proceedings of the 14th Long Ashton International Symposium: Plant Roots - From Cells to Systems held in Bristol, UK, 13-15 September 1995

Soil Physical Conditions and Plant Roots

Soil Physical Conditions and Plant Roots Author : J. Glinski
Release : 2018-01-17
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 1351093606
File Size : 56.88 MB
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This book is a specialized monograph on soil physical conditions and root-system relations. It attempts to explain the importance of physical properties of soil by showing how they affect root growth and functions; and on the other hand, how roots themselves change their environment. Emphasis is placed on the interactive effects of soil physical factors. An attempt has been made to analyze the possibilities of the root systems modification by both soil and plant management.The book is addressed to research workers and advanced students in soil and plant sciences and may also be of interest to agronomists and related specialists.

Managing Energy, Nutrients, and Pests in Organic Field Crops

Managing Energy, Nutrients, and Pests in Organic Field Crops Author : Ralph C. Martin
Release : 2014-02-07
Publisher : CRC Press
ISBN : 1466568364
File Size : 72.57 MB
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The use of organic management practices in field cropping continues to rise globally, and these methods have proven to be a viable way to produce food with reduced resource use and environmental damage. Managing Energy, Nutrients, and Pests in Organic Field Crops challenges the popular misconception that organic systems are weak at managing energy, nutrients, and pests and shows how innovative farm designs can enhance organic performance. It provides information for assessing the current state of knowledge on organic field cropping and for making the systems more viable. Each chapter summarizes the latest data from a wide range of sources, creating a comprehensive and coherent picture of the issues and integrating agronomic, economic, and policy aspects. Many chapters also include recent research from the authors. Section I, Soil Health, examines the importance of phosphorus balance, soil fertility, and tillage reduction. Section II, Pest Management, focuses on integrated weed management and long-term approaches to insect management. Section III, Integrating Approaches, addresses multiple field cropping challenges. Chapters cover the oldest organic rotational trials in Canada, the issue of using cereals bred for conventional systems and more targeted organic cereal breeding strategies, and case studies of a broad spectrum of farming experiences that explore the broader social and ecological landscape. The final section, Economics, Energy, and Policy, examines environmental issues not previously addressed in the text as well as consumer, economic, and rural community matters. It also presents a reprint of an article that describes policies and programs (and their costs) needed to advance adoption of organic farming in Ontario. The text wraps up with key conclusions and a discussion of overarching themes for the book, summarizing the strengths of the available tool box for organic producers and the challenges that remain.

Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Growth Responses

Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Growth Responses Author : Dinesh K. Maheshwari
Release : 2011-06-23
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN : 9783642203329
File Size : 90.25 MB
Format : PDF
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The future of agriculture strongly depends on our ability to enhance productivity without sacrificing long-term production potential. An ecologically and economically sustainable strategy is the application of microorganisms, such as the diverse bacterial species of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The use of these bio-resources for the enhancement of crop productivity is gaining worldwide importance. “Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Growth Responses” describes the application of various bacteria in plant growth promotion and protection, including symbiotic, free living, rhizospheric, endophytic, methylotrophic, diazotrophic and filamentous species.

Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production

Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production Author : Geoffrey R. Dixon
Release : 2010-09-08
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN : 9789048194797
File Size : 77.99 MB
Format : PDF
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Soils into which crop plants root and from which they obtain essential minerals and water contain huge arrays of microbes. Many have highly beneficial effects on crop growth and productivity, others are pathogens causing diseases and losses to yield and quality, a few microbes offer protection from these pathogenic forms and others have little or no effect. These intimate and often complex inter-relationships are being explored with increasing success providing exciting opportunities for increasing crop yields and quality in sustainable harmony with the populations of beneficial soil microbes and to the detriment of pathogens. This book explores current knowledge for each of these aspects of soil microbiology and indicates where future progress is most likely to aid in increasing crop productivity by means which are environmentally benign and beneficial.